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Almost 200 economists: it would be a "major mistake" to leave the EU

Almost 200 economists have written in The Times today that we're better off IN Europe - here's the full text of their letter: 

Sir, Focusing entirely on the economics, we consider that it would be a major mistake for the UK to leave the European Union.

Leaving would entail significant long-term costs. The size of these costs would depend on the amount of control the UK chooses to exercise over such matters as free movement of labour, and the associated penalty it would pay in terms of access to the single market. The numbers calculated by the LSE’s Centre for Economic Performance, the OECD and the Treasury describe a plausible range for the scale of these costs.

The uncertainty over precisely what kind of relationship the UK would find itself in with the EU and the rest of the world would also weigh heavily for many years. In addition, there is a sizeable risk of a short-term shock to confidence if we were to see a Leave vote on June 23. The Bank of England has signalled this concern clearly, and we share it.

Paul Levine, Professor of Economics, University of Surrey;

Simon Wren Lewis, Professor of Economics, Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford;

Tony Yates, Professor of Economics, University of Birmingham;

Christoph Thoenissen, Professor of Economics, University of Sheffield;

Tatiana Damjanovich, Professor of Economics, University of Durham;

Chris Martin, Professor of Economics, University of Bath;

Antonio Navas, Lecturer in Economics, University of Sheffield;

Matt Dickson, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Bath;

Alistair Hunt, Lecturer in Economics, University of Bath;

Jolyan McHardy, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Sheffield;

Peter Postl, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Bath;

Ian Gregory-Smith, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Sheffield;

Aditya Goenka, Professor of Economics, University of Birmingham;

Brian Main, Professor of Business Economics, University of Edinburgh;

Kostas Mouratidis, Lecturer in Economics, University of Sheffield;

Simon Burgess, Professor of Economics, University of Bristol;

Alec Chrystal, Emeritus Professor of Money and Banking, Cass Business School, City University;

Alexander Mihailov, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Reading;

Costas Milas, Professor of Economics, University of Liverpool;

Michailis Stamatogiannis, Senior Lecturer in Finance, University of Liverpool; Marina Della Giusta, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Reading;

Peter Backus, Lecturer in Economics, University of Manchester;

David Chivers, Lecturer in Economics, University of Durham;

Helen Simpson, Professor of Economics, University of Bristol;

David Cobham, Professor of Economics, Herriot-Watt University;

James Reade, Lecturer in Economics, University of Reading;

Jonathan Temple, Professor of Economics, University of Bristol;

Elisa Keller, Lecturer in Economics and Finance, University of Durham;

Christoph Gortz, Lecturer in Economics, University of Birmingham;

John Fender, Professor of Economics, University of Birmingham;

Michael Horvath, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of York;

Christos Kolympiris, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Bath;

Jo Michell, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of the West of England, Bristol;

Roger Backhouse, Professor of Economics, University of Birmingham;

Arnab Bhattacharjee, Professor of Economics, Heriot-Watt University;

Pierre-Guillaume Meon, Professor of Economics, Universite libre de Bruxelles;

Peter Spencer, Professor of Economics, University of York;

Christian Ewald, Professor of Financial Economics, University of Glasgow;

Tatiana Kirsanova, Professor of Economics, University of Glasgow;

Sascha Becker, Professor of Economics, University of Warwick;

Gulcin Ozkan, Professor of Economics, University of York;

Juan Paez-Farrell, Lecturer in Economics, University of Sheffield;

Andrew Pickering, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of York;

Matt Cole, Professor of Economics, University of Birmingham;

Nicolas Van Der Sijpe, Lecturer in Economics, University of Sheffield;

Sascha Becker, Professor of Economics, University of Warwick;

Roman Sustek, Lecturer in Economics, Queen Mary, University of London;

Jan Fidrmuc, Senior Lecturer in Economics, Brunel University;

Tim Worrall, Professor of Economics, University of Edinburgh;

Paul Mizen, Professor of Economics, University of Nottingham;

Frank Strobel, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Birmingham;

Geraint Johnes, Professor of Economics, University of Lancaster;

Gianni de Fraja, Professor of Economics, University of Nottingham;

Ian Walker, Professor of Economics, University of Lancaster;

Amailia Di Girolamo, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Birmingham;

Ethan Ilzetski, Lecturer in Economics, London School of Economics;

Jill Johnes, Professor of Production Economics, University of Huddersfield;

Neil Rankin, Professor of Economics, University of York;

Colin Rowat, Professor of Economics, University of Birmingham;

Bai Yuting, Lecturer in Economics, University of Lancaster;

Andrew Mell, Career Development Fellow in Economics, University of Oxford;

Alan Sutherland, Professor of Economics, University of St Andrews;

Joao Rodrigues Madeira, Lecturer in Economics, University of York;

Engelbert Stockhammer, Professor of Economics, Kingston University;

Ozlem Onaran, Professor of Economics and Director of Greenwich Political Economy Research Centre, University of Greenwich;

Jonathan Perraton, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Sheffield;

Joseph Pearlman, Professor of Economics, City University;

William Tayler, Lecturer, University of Lancaster;

Daniel Zizzo, Professor of Economics, University of Newcastle;

Frank Skinner, Professor of Corporate Finance, Brunel University;

Charles Goodhart, Emeritus Professor of Economics, London School of Economics;

David Blanchflower, Professor of Economics, Dartmouth College;

Marianne Sensier, Research Fellow, University of Manchester;

Mike Danson, Professor of Enterprise Policy, Heriot-Watt University;

Keith Smith, Senior Research Fellow, Imperial College Business School;

Andrew Scott, Professor of Economics, London Business School;

Cristiano Cantore, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Surrey;

Robert Witt, Professor of Economics, University of Surrey;

Alex Mandilaris, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Surrey;

Santos Silva, Professor of Economics and Head of School, University of Surrey;

Adi Imsirovic, Teaching Fellow in Economics, University of Surrey;

Sandra McNally, Professor of Economics, University of Surrey;

Jo Blanden, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Surrey;

Guilherme Carmona, Professor of Economics, University of Surrey;

Federico Martellosio, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Surrey;

Tom Holden, Lecturer in Economics, University of Surrey;

Sarolta Laczo, Lecturer in Economics, University of Surrey;

Antonio Mele, Lecturer in Economics, University of Surrey;

Manthos Delis, Professor of Financial Economics, University of Surrey;

Maria Iosifidi, Lecturer in Financial Economics, University of Surrey;

Andy Ross, Lecturer in Economics, Birkbeck, University of London;

Alf Martin, Assistant Professor of Economics, Imperial College Business School;

Holger Breinlich, Professor of Economics, University of Nottingham;

Zacharias Psaradakis, Professor of Econometrics, Birkbeck, University of London;

Yunus Aksoy, Reader in Economics, Birkbeck, University of London;

Miguel Leon-Ledesma, Professor of Economics, University of Kent;

Alexander Mihailov, Associate, Professor of Economics, University of Reading;

Keith Pilbeam, Professor of Economics , City University, London;

Chris Starmer, Professor of Economics, University of Nottingham;

Simon Appleton, Professor of Economics, University of Nottingham;

Hamish Low, Professor of Economics, University of Cambridge;

Ethan Ilzetski, Assistant Professor of Economics, London School of Economics;

Giordano Mion, Professor of Economics, University of Sussex;

Sai Ding, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Glasgow;

Jim Malley, Professor of Economics, University of Glasgow;

Guido Ascari, Professor of Economics, University of Oxford;

Ali al-Nowaihi, Professor of Economics, University of Leicester;

Mariana Mazzucato, Professor in the Economics of Innovation, Sussex University;

Abigail Barr, Associate Professor and Reader at the School of Economics, University of Nottingham;

Photis Lysandrou, Professor of Economics, City University;

Jan Toporowski, Professor of Economics and Finance, SOAS;

Huw Dixon, Professor of Economics, University of Cardiff;

Chryssi Giannitsarou, Lecturer in Economics, University of Cambridge;

Stephanie Griffith-Jones, Emeritus Professorial Fellow, IDS, Sussex University;

Charles Brendon, Lecturer, University of Cambridge;

Richard Jolly, Professor and Research Associate, IDS, Sussex University;

Flavio Toxvaerd, Lecturer, University of Cambridge;

Nauro Campos, Professor of Economics, Brunel University;

Anastasia Nesvetailova, Director, City Political Economy Research Centre, City University;

Sir Richard Jolly, Emeritus Professor of Development Economics, IDS, Sussex University;

Nicole Tabasso, Lecturer in Economics, University of Surrey;

Pontus Rendahl, Lecturer in Economics, University of Cambridge;

Michael Lipton, Emeritus Professor, Sussex University;

Daniela Gabor, Associate Professor, UWE Bristol;

Neil Lancastle,Senior Lecturer in Accounting and Finance, DeMontfort University;

Joanna Clifton-Sprigg, Lecturer in Economics, University of Bath;

Peter Sinclair, Professor of Economics, University of Birmingham;

Thijs Van Rens, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Warwick;

Liam Graham, Reader in Economics, University College London;

Isaac Karalis, Teaching Fellow in Economics, University of Warwick;

Ozge Senay, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of St Andrews;

Christian Soegaard, Lecturer in Economics, University of Warwick;

Beata Javorcik, Professor of Economics, Oxford University;

Rick Van der Ploeg, Professor of Economics, Oxford University;

Christopher Bowdler, Professor of Economics, Oxford University;

David Vines, Professor of Economics, Oxford University;

Patricia Rice, Associate Head and Research Fellow of Economics Department, Oxford University;

Tony Venables, Professor of Economics, Oxford University;

Elisa Faraglia, Lecturer in Economics, University of Cambridge;

Michael Gasiorek, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Sussex;

Peter Holmes, Jean Monnet Reader in the Economics of European Integration, University of Sussex;

Sarah Maioli, Lecturer in Economics, University of Newcastle;

Roxana Radulescu, Lecturer in Economics, University of Newcastle;

Martin Ellison, Professor of Economics, University of Oxford;

Pedro Serodio, Teaching Fellow, University of Warwick;

Frances Stewart, Professor of Economics, University of Oxford;

Edmund Cannon, Reader in Economics, University of Bristol;

Rui Pedro Esteves, Professor of Economics, Oxford University;

Andrea Ferrero, Professor of Economics, Oxford University;

Ray Barrell, Professor of Economics, Brunel University and VA Research;

Robert Elliott, Professor of Economics, University of Birmingham;

Shaun Hargreaves Heap, Professor of Economics, Kings College London;

Stephen Hall, Professor of Economics, Deputy Pro Vice Chancellor and Head of Department, University of Leicester;

Sanjit Dhami, Professor of Economics, University of Leicester;

Bo Yang, Lecturer in Economics, University of Swansea;

Mohamed Shaban, Reader in Economics, University of Sheffield Management School;

Meryem Duygun, Professor of Economics, University of Nottingham Business School;

Peter Jackson, Professor of Economics, University of Leicester;

Gregory James, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Loughborough;

Robert Ackrill, Professor of European Economics and Policy, Nottingham Trent University;

Leighton Vaughan Williams, Professor of Economics and Finance, Nottingham Trent University;

Maria Garcia-Alonso, Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Kent;

Jeff Round, Lecturer in Health Economics, University of Bristol;

Emmanuel Haven, Professor of Financial Economics, University of Leicester;

Nigel Healey, Professor of Economics, Nottingham Trent University;

John Marsh, Senior Lecturer in Economics, Nottingham Trent University;

Diane Coyle, Professor of Economics, University of Manchester;

Jacopo Mazza, Lecturer in Economics, University of Manchester;

Geoff Harcourt, Emeritus Fellow, Jesus College, University of Cambridge;

Non-academics:

Rohan Shah, economist, leading competition economics firm;

Owen Barder, Vice President, Director of CGD Europe and Senior Fellow, Center for Global Development;

Michael Grady, Senior Economist, Aviva Investors;

Dr Rebecca Driver, Analytically Driven;

Duncan Weldon, Head of Research, Resolution Group;

Megan Greene, Chief Economist, Manulife Asset Management;

George Magnus, Associate, China Centre, University of Oxford;

Alex Bowen, Principal Research Fellow, Grantham Institute on Climate Change, LSE;

John Springford, Senior Fellow, Center for European Reform;

Sushil Wadhwani, CEO, Wadhwani Asset Management LLP;

Grant Lewis;

Chris Scicluna;

Toby Nangle, Global Co-Head of Multi-Asset, Columbia Threadneedle Investments;

Anne Pettifor, Director, Policy Research in Macroeconomics;

Kate Gimblett, Financial Economist, KG Consulting and Research;

Stephanie Flanders, Former Economics Editor, BBC Newsnight;

Kitty Usher, Managing Director, Tooley St Research, and former Treasury Minister;

Michael Grady, Senior Economist and Strategist, Aviva Investors;

Simon Maxwell, Chair of the European Think-Tanks Group, Former Head of ODI;

Daniel Alpert, Managing Partner, Westwood Capital LLC and Fellow, The Century Foundation;

Alberto Gallo, Portfolio Manager and Head of Macro Strategies, Algebris Investments;

Brenda Kelly, Head Analyst, London Capital Group;

Erik Nielson, Global Chief Economist, Unicredit;

Simon Tilford, Deputy Director, Centre for European Reform